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Connecticut State Guide

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Connecticut is a state in the southernmost part of the United States. Connecticut is often placed within the group of the Tri-state area comprising of New York, Connecticut and New Jersey. The state is bordered to the eastern part by Rhode Island, to the north by Massachusetts, to the west by New York, and to the south by Long Island Sound. Hartford is the capital city of Connecticut and state's major population reside in Bridgeport. Connecticut attained statehood on January 9, 1788 and became the 5th state of the United States [1]. Connecticut is also commonly nicknamed as the “Constitution State”, the “Nutmeg State”, the “Provisions State”, and the “Land of Steady Habits”.

Connecticut Fast Facts:

  • Capital city: Hartford
  • Largest city: Bridgeport
  • State Animal: Sperm Whale
  • State Bird: American Robin
  • State Tree: The Charter Oak
  • State Flower: Mountain Laurel
  • State Song: Yankee Doodle
  • State Fossil: Eubrontes Giganteus Dinosaur Track

State TreeState |BirdState FlowerState Animal

History of Connecticut

Before the European settlement, many Native American tribes, including the Pequots, the Mohegans, and the Paugusetts inhabited the Connecticut region. The Dutch traders were the first European explorer to arrive in Connecticut and after which many more Dutch fur traders reached the state by sailing up the Connecticut river. One notable early settlers was Reverend Thomas Hooker, who founded Hartford town which became a vital trading and government centre.

The Pequot War broke out and this was the very initial battle fought between Native Americans and European settlers in New England. In response to the Pequot people's aggression to retain their lands, the European settlers raided the Pequot. War was declared by the colonists and Pequot village was under attack on the Mystic River. The war resulted to many deaths of Pequots. Later a ruce and peace terms was demanded after yielding another worst loss at a Fairfield battle.

The 18th century marked the establishments of many schools and colleges in the state. One notable one was the building of Yale College in 1701. New Haven State House was established on the Green. Also great religious awakening happened in the mid 18th century. On January 9, 1788, Connecticut became the 5th state of the United States.

Many industries were established in Connecticut in the 19th century. Brass industry established at Waterbury. Manufacture of textiles became abundant in the state in the first half of the century. In 1847, the first American agricultural experiment station opened at Yale. Later slavery was abolished in the state.

Connecticut in 1900s witnessed the establishments of many universities, such as University of New Haven, University of Hartford, St. Joseph College and University of Bridgeport. In 1900, Electric Boat Company, constructed the country's first Navy Submarine. In 1974, Ella Grasso, was elected the first woman Governor in Connecticut.

Connecticut History Timeline

1614 - The first Europeans arrive at Connecticut.
1633 - Permanent settlement agreement was signed after the Dutch traders bought land from the Pequot Tribe.
1635 - First English settlers landed in Windsor.
1646 - New London founded.
1717 - New Haven State House opened on the Green.
1740 - Tinware manufacturing began at Berlin.
1765 - Stamp Act was passed by t6he English Parliament.
1777 - British troops raided Danbury.
1785 - First Manual and Register published.
1789 - Oliver Ellsworth and William Samuel Johnson were elected as first United States Senators from Connecticut.
1802 - Brass industry established at Waterbury.
1806 - Noah Webster published the first abbreviated edition of his dictionary of the American language.
1823 - Washington College, presently known as Trinity was founded in Hartford.
1831 - Wesleyan University founded in Middletown.
1844 - Anaethesia used by Dr. Horace Wells at Hartford.
1848 - Abolished Slavery Connecticut.
1900 - Electric Boat Company constructed the first United States Navy Submarine, Holland.
1920 - University of New Haven founded.
1927 - University of Bridgeport founded.
1936 - Connecticut River Valley damaged by floods.
1990 - First woman, Eunice S. Groark, elected as lieutenant governor in Connecticut.

Geography of Connecticut

Geography Fast Facts:

Total Area: 5,543 sq mi (14,357 km2)
Longitude: 71o47′ W to 73o44′ W
Latitude: 40o58′ N to 42o03′ N
Highest point: Massachusetts border on south slope of Mount Frissell-2,379 ft (725 m)
Mean point: 500 ft (150 m)
Lowest point: Long Island Sound at sea level
Area Under Forest: 60%
Time Zone Mountain: Eastern: UTC −5/−4
Connecticut is located in the southernmost end of the United States. Connecticut is a relatively small state in size that covers a total land area of 4,842.36 square miles [2]. Water bodies occupy 12.6% of the state’s total area. The state is bordered to the eastern part by Rhode Island, to the north by Massachusetts, to the west by New York, and to the south by Long Island Sound. Hartford is the capital city and 3rd largest city of the state. Some of the other important cities and towns of the state based on population include Bridgeport, Stamford, New Haven, Waterbury, Danbury, Norwalk, New Britain, Bristol and Greenwich.

Topography of Connecticut

The state has a natural varied landscape in spite of relatively small in size. Connecticut is cut through by Connecticut River that flows into Long Island Sound. Most of the population is centered over the metropolitan area in and around the Connecticut River Valley. The northwestern regions feature beautiful horse farms and rolling mountains while the southeastern county of New London has many beaches and offer various maritime and recreational activities.

The northeastern and northwestern regions of the state encompass many rural areas and small towns while industrial cities predominate along the coastal highways covering New London to New York border and extends in the northern direction touching the Connecticut River to Hartford.There are several towns that are incorporated around a "green," namely Lebanon Green, the Litchfield Green and Wethersfield Green. The green encompass many historical sites of New England towns, including a white church, a colonial tavern or "inne," a colonial meeting house, many colonial houses and many more.


Rivers of Connecticut

Connecticut has many Rivers flowing in and around the state. Almost all rivers of the state flow into Long Island Sound and later empty into the Atlantic Ocean. Connecticut River, Thames River and Housatonic River are some notable ones among the various state's rivers.

Connecticut River

The Connecticut River is New England region's longest river covering a length of 410 miles. The river flows in and around the states of Connecticut, Massachusetts, Vermont, and New Hampshire. The Connecticut River Valley has some of the most productive farmland of the nation's north-eastern region. The area also features one of the most populated metropolitan regions encompassing Massachusetts, Springfield and Connecticut's capital, Hartford.

Housatonic River

The Housatonic River is located in western parts of Connecticut and Massachusetts covering a length of 139 miles. The river follows south to southeastern flow pattern and drains several rivers of south-western Connecticut into Long Island Sound. It flows in the counties of Connecticut, such as Fairfield, New Haven, Litchfield and Massachusetts county of Berkshire.

Thames River

The Thames River is river covering lesser miles, having its tidal estuary in the state of Connecticut. The river majorly flows in the eastern areas of the state with a flow pattern starting from the node of Shetucket and Yantic rivers at Norwich to Gorton and New London and finally empty at Long Island Sound.

Forests in Connecticut

The forests in Connecticut cover around 60% of its land area. Connecticut is among the nation's most heavily forested states. The forest and its multiple resources are important for the economic growth of the state. Additionally, apart from being a home to varied flora and fauna, forests enhance the people's quality of life by clearing the pollutants and providing cleaner, clearer air to breath in and also preserve drinking water resources. The Department of Energy and Environmental protection (DEEP) manages and maintain the state’s forests and the resources. Forests

Contact Connecticut Department of Energy and Environmental Protection
79 Elm Street
Hartford, CT 06106-5127
General Information: 860-424-3000
Website: http://www.ct.gov/deep/site/default.asp

Given below are the State Forests of Connecticut.

  • Algonquin State Forest: 2,987 acres forest located in Litchfield County and offers Hiking, fishing, hunting and bird watching.

  • American Legion State Forest: 893 acres forest located in Litchfield County and offers hiking, boating, camping and nature center.

  • Camp Columbia State Park/State Forest: 601 acres forest located in Litchfield County and offers hiking, hunting and Historic college campus.

  • Centennial Watershed State Forest: 15,370 acres forest located in Fairfield County and offers hunting, hiking and fishing.

  • Cockaponset State Forest: 17,186 acres forest located in Middlesex County and offers swimming, trails and fishing.

  • Enders State Forest: 2,105 acres forest located in Hartford County and offers hunting and hiking.

  • Housatonic State Forest: 10,894 acres located in Litchfield County and offers Appalachian Trail.

  • James L. Goodwin State Forest: 2,003 acres forest located in Middlesex County and offers boat launch, Air Line State Park Trail, Conservation Education Center, Natchaug Trail and youth group camping.

  • Massacoe State Forest: 503 acres forest located in Hartford County and offers Bike trail.

  • Mattatuck State Forest: 4,673 acres forest located in Hartford County and offers 20 different parcels; Whitestone Cliffs Trail and Hancock Brook Trail.

  • Meshomasic State Forest: 9,026 acres forest located in Middlesex County and offers fishing, hunting and hiking.

  • Mohawk State Forest: 3,743 acres located in Litchfield County and offers

  • Mohegan State Forest: 956 acres forest located in Middlesex County and offers hunting and hiking.

  • Nassahegon State Forest: 1,227 acres forest located in Hartford County and offers fish hatchery, hiking, hunting and bird watching.

  • Natchaug State Forest: 13,438 acres forest located in Windham County and offers Natchaug Trail hiking, camping and horseback riding.

  • Nathan Hale State Forest: 1,455 forest located in Tolland County and offers hiking, hunting.

  • Naugatuck State Forest: 4,153 acres forest located in New Haven County and offers the Naugatuck Trail.

  • Nehantic State Forest: 5,062 acres forest located in New London County and offers boating, hiking and swimming.

  • Nepaug State Forest: 1,373 acres forest located in Litchfield County and offers hiking, fishing, biking, camping.

  • Nipmuck State Forest: 9,209 acres forest located in Tolland County and offers Bigelow Hollow State Park, Nipmuck Trail, Mountain Laurel Sanctuary.

  • Nye-Holman State Forest: 787 acres forest located in Tolland County and offers fishing, youth group camping, hiking.

  • Pachaug State Forest: 28,804 acres located in New London County and offers camping, horseback riding, boating, motorcycle trail, youth group camping.

  • Paugnut State Forest: 1,644 acres located in Litchfield county and offers scenic beauty of abuts Burr Pond and Sunnybrook state parks.

  • Paugussett State Forest: 1,947 acres located inFairfield County and offers boat launch, hiking, fishing, mountain biking.

  • Peoples State Forest: 3,059 acres located in Litchfieldand offers Barkhamsted Lighthouse.

  • Pootatuck State Forest: 1,103 acres located in Fairfieldand offers Squantz Pond State Park.

  • Quaddick State Forest: 1,109 acres located in Windham County and offers youth group camping.

  • Salmon River State Forest: 6,905 acres located in Middlesex, New Londoncounty and offers Comstock's Bridge.

  • Shenipsit State Forest: 6,962 acres located in Tolland county and offers 11 parcels, Civilian Conservation Corps Museum, Shenipsit Trail.

  • Topsmead State Forest: 615 acres located in Litchfieldcounty and offers historic house museum estate of Edith Morton Chase.

  • Tunxis State Forest: 5,519 acres located in Hartford county and meets Massachusetts'sGranville State Forest.

  • Wyantenock State Forest: 4,083 acres located in Litchfield county and offers 9 parcels.

Learn more: Connecticut State Forests

Climate of Connecticut

The climate of Connecticut is humid continental climate, with hot and humid summers and cold winters. During summer months, thunderstorms bring in rainfall. The winter temperatures vary from south to north, with the northern regions relatively colder than the southern parts. The southernmost areas and coastal regions of the state has predominantly humid temperate or subtropical climate.

Fair amount of precipitation and snowfall are spread evenly across the state all year round. Snowfall is abundant in the northern higher elevated regions. The region west or north of interstate 84 is the area most commonly hit by thunderstorms and snow throughout winter months.

Demographics of Connecticut

The population of Connecticut as of 2014 estimation by the U.S. Census Bureau was 3,596,677. The 2014 census reflected a hike of 0.6% since the year 2010. Connecticut is a relatively small state in size but is very densely populated. As of 2010, the population density of the state is 738.1 persons per square mile. The major portions of Connecticut's southern and western regions are the most affluent and populated parts of the state. New York's center of population is situated in Cheshire town [4]

Connecticut’s major ancestry groups include Italian, Polish, German, French, American, French Canadian, Russian, Scottish, West Indian, Swedish, Hungarian, Portuguese and Lithuanian.

Connecticut population quick facts according to the Census Bureau

  • Population, 2014: 3,596,677
  • Population, 2013: 3,599,341
  • Population, percent change, April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2014: 0.6%
  • Population, 2010: 19,378,102
  • Persons under 5 years, percent, 2013: 5.3%
  • Persons under 18 years, percent, 2013: 21.8%
  • Persons 65 years and over, percent, 2013: 15.2%
  • Female persons, percent, 2013: 51.2%

Connecticut Racial groups, 2013

  • White alone: 81.6%
  • Black or African American alone:11.3%
  • American Indian and Alaska Native alone: 0.5%
  • Asian alone: 4.3%
  • Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander alone: 0.1%
  • Two or More Races: 2.1%
  • Hispanic or Latino:14.7%
  • White alone, not Hispanic or Latino: 69.6%

The major religious groups in the state are –

  • Protestant
  • Mormonism
  • Jewish
  • Roman Catholic
  • Orthodox
  • Jehovah's Witness
  • Hinduism
  • Buddhism
  • Islam

Economy of Connecticut

Several sectors play a vital role in the economic growth of Connecticut. One notable among the many sectors is finance and insurance sector which is the state’s largest industry. Some of the other major sectors that contribute immensely include health care, law firms, engineering, tourism, computer and data processing services, and retails, and agriculture. New Canaan is Connecticut's wealthiest town while Hartford is the poorest municipality in the state.


Connecticut Economy Facts and Figures:[3]

  • Gross domestic product (GDP)in millions of current dollars of all industry total in 2013 - $249,251

  • Connecticut Per capita real GDP in 2013 - $65,070

  • Connecticut Per capita personal income in 2013 - 60,872

  • Connecticut’s unemployment rate in 2015 - 6.3%

Agriculture in Connecticut

  • The top 5 agricultural products based on revenue generated include greenhouse and nursery products, chicken eggs, dairy products, sweet corn and aquaculture.

  • Connecticut’s most important agricultural income is generated from greenhouse and nursery products.

  • The largest crops of the state are tobacco and hay.

  • The state's other livestock products are hogs, aquaculture (oysters, hard clmas), cattle and calves.

Industry in Connecticut

  • Connecticut’s top manufacturing activity is the production of equipments used in transportation, especially for military use, such as aircraft parts, submarines and helicopters.

  • The 2nd ranked in the state manufacturing sector are machinery manufacturing, such as bearings, machine tools, computers, printing machinery followed by fabricated metal products, such as hardware, cutlery, nuts, rivets, bolts, washers.

  • Connecticut’s largest industries are finance, insurance and real estate.

  • The state's top mined product is crushed stone. Sand and gravel are also important mined products of the state.

Tourism in Connecticut

Tourism is also a principal part of Connecticut's economy and is one of the largest employers of the state. Many plans and programs are implemented to improve Connecticut’s transportation network and accordingly enhance the tourism sector.

Some of the top places to visit in Connecticut include-

Mystic Seaport
Lake Compounce
The Wadsworth Atheneum Museum of Art
New Britain Museum of American Art Sea port
International Festival of Arts & Ideas
The Philip Johnson Glass House
Connecticut Beer Trail
Family Ice Fishing Derby
Webster Bank Arena
Water's Edge Resort and Spa
30th Annual Connecticut Bridal Expo
Simsbury 1820 House
Fireside dining location
Outdoor Skating Rink
Skiing, snowboarding and tubing
Powder Ridge Mountain Park and Resort
Quassy Amusement Park
Winter Carnival
The Connecticut Science Center

Transportation in Connecticut

The Connecticut Department of Transportation (ConnDOT) overviews the entire transportation network of the state to ensure safe and easy commuting of people and goods.


The road transportation in Connecticut comprises of several interstate highways, state routes, bridges and tunnels. The important Interstate Highways in Connecticut are I-95, I-84, I-91.

Air transportation is an essential gateway of Connecticut that serves the locals and tourists from all over the world. It is the major mode that offers all round efficient and easy connectivity. The two primary commercial airports of Connecticut are Bradley International Airport and Tweed New Haven Regional Airport.

The Metro-North Commuter Railroad is a suburban commuter rail service operated by the Metropolitan Transportation Authority (MTA), New York's public authority. Amtrak's Northeast Corridor serves the state of Connecticut. Amtrak provides intercity train connectivity along the Hudson and New Haven Lines.

Learn more: Transportation in Connecticut

Government of Connecticut

The Government of Connecticut is guarded and established by the Connecticut Constitution. Connecticut became a 5th state of the United States on January 9, 1788.

The Connecticut Executive Branch is a well functioning body of the government of Connecticut and several state government departments work under the executive branch. Executive branch comprises of 18 departments and 56 agencies.

Connecticut Legislature is the body of the state government of Connecticut which is divided into two separate bodies, namely State Senate and House of Representatives.

Under the Connecticut Constitution, the Judiciary branch applies and interprets laws and regulations to ensure justice in the state. The judicial system of Connecticut is served by numerous efficient professionally trained judges. The courts in state consist of Supreme Court, Appellate Court, Superior Court and Probate Court.

Connecticut Taxation

The Connecticut Department of Revenue Services manages and administers a standard tax laws in the state. Tax laws include entire laws and taxes on income, sales, property, luxury, bingo, and estate. Before the state follow an investment-only income tax system and later amendments were made in the system in which equal taxes on employment and investment income were levied at a highest rate of 4%.

Learn more: Government of Connecticut

Connecticut Health Care

The Connecticut Department of Public Health works efficiently to improve the health and living standards of the community by implementing many health regulating services and policies. Various divisions and sub-divisions work concurrently with the department to optimize the health of the community. The department also maintains all health vital records of the people of Connecticut.

The Office of the Healthcare Advocate is functioning to assist and support the people of Connecticut to provide an effective health care plans and policies. The division offers comprehensive explanations about the programs and benefits so as to provide better understanding to choose the best among the many plans available.

Learn more: Connecticut Health Care

Education in Connecticut

The education system in Connecticut comprises of the public and private schools, public and private universities, colleges and high schools. The Connecticut Department of Education is responsible to assess and manage the workings of all schools, colleges and universities in the state. The department’s mission is to provide world class education and best values to the students to ensure success in education, workplace and in every spheres of life. The Connecticut State Board of Education administers grades K-12 public school system. All members of Board of Education are appointed by the state's Governor. The education system in Connecticut strives to be as transparent as possible by implementing "CEDAR", an online database system, through which statistics for all schools may be accessible. The CEDAR database also provides data for schools of children with behavioral disorder (RESC and ACES).


The Connecticut State Universities (CSU) are Connecticut's largest public higher education system and is ranked 2nd largest in New England. CSU's 4 universities, namely Central, Southern, Eastern and Western provide both graduate and undergraduate programs in over 100 subjects.

Connecticut Private Universities and Colleges

Connecticut Public Universities and College

Sports in Connecticut

Connecticut has many famous professional sports teams. Many teams from Connecticut are included in the big four sports leagues which is United State's major professional sports leagues (comprising of Major League Baseball - MLB, the National Basketball Association - NBA, the National Football League - NFL, and the National Hockey League - NHL. The important sports of Connecticut are ice hockey and baseball.

Connecticut's major professional sports teams are-

  • Bridgeport Sound Tigers - American Hockey League
  • Hartford Wolf Pack - American Hockey League
  • Danbury Whalers - Federal Hockey League
  • New Britain Rock Cats - Eastern League (AA)
  • Connecticut Tigers - New York-Penn League (A)
  • Bridgeport Bluefish - Atlantic League
  • Connecticut Sun - Women's National Basketball Association

Connecticut also has many other non-professional sports teams, such as high school sports, college sports. Some of the important college sports include basketball and football.

Interesting Facts about Connecticut:

  • Connecticut State song is "Yankee Doodle".

  • Connecticut's motto is Qui Transtulit Sustinet, translated as "He Who Transplanted Still Sustains".

  • Connecticut State Soil is Windsor.

  • The nation's only steam powered Cider Mill is B.F. Clyde's Cider located in Mystic.

  • Bristol is tagged as the "Mum City" of the nation because of the abundance of Chrysanthemums grown and sold to many states and Canada.

  • Connecticut is home to the first Polaroid camera, hamburger, helicopter, and color television.

  • The Praying Mantis is Connecticut State insect.


  1. Connecticut Statehood
  2. Connecticut Size
  3. Economy Fast Facts
  4. Demographics of Connecticut
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